Why do we need Web services?
framework for Web Service: Why do we need Web services?
The challenges facing the wrong solution: a complex system solutions for the correct docking solution: Web services and business Web
Web services are the future?
What are Web services?
References About the author
CHAI Xiao-Lu (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Chief System Architect
July 9, 2001
This is the Web services architecture's first series of articles from the Web service business needs to start to explore why the use of Web services. First of all, the author of an analysis of e-business applications is currently facing challenges: a pragmatic and economic interests to pursue the needs of today's e-commerce. However, there is extensive use of e-business application architecture makes this difficult to achieve commercial demand for complex applications and program code to connect applications resulted in high maintenance costs and update the price. As existing technology innovation (rather than revolution) is the Web services can solve this problem, the current environment the most reasonable solution.
Web services seems to be a new term, and now the mainstream technology to browse the major forum for all concerned about the development of Web services. But in the end is what is Web services? Initial contact with a lot of technical personnel Web services, there will be a wrong impression that this is a new system architecture, the new programming environment. Yes, Web services are a new concept, but his system architecture, and his realization of technology is already fully inherit technology would not be replaced so that existing applications, but existing applications an extension of Internet-oriented.
In this series, the author from what is Web services, why do we need to start Web services, Web services build on the model, combined with an example of detailed structure of the process of Web services.
resources mainly include two categories of services is the Web site of the technical resources, including a large number of Web services, technical information, and the other is Web services "stack" series of technical specifications, they are a technical system, including UDDI, SOAP, WSDL, xml and so on. Finally, this article links to these resources, interested readers can find these resources link the content.
The challenge for
We know that over the past decade of IT industry / COM "Crazy" investment in the times have passed, and it was the age of an experiment. And now, the industry entered a practical stage, the focus of today's e-commerce development has been entirely from the past. COM model turned to the traditional business of e-commerce process. Since it is a business e-commerce, and whether the new model is secondary and that can bring economic benefits for enterprises is the key. Enterprises in the planning time for e-business applications, business managers and system architects to pay more attention to whether the e-business applications for enterprises of direct economic benefits, whether it is conducive to cut the cost of an expenditure, whether or not to optimize the use of resources, these enterprises because it is driven by commercial interests, in this round of e-commerce development, the technology is for business services, and any business needs from the "new" technology without the use of force must be the to.
Sharp drop in IT investment in the days to come, system architects are careful, extensive research, in the operating mechanism of the enterprise's own careful study of the pragmatic, the summary of a number of (relatively small number of only seven kinds) for the implementation of the most valuable e-business applications, which are:
Enterprise Portal (Portal): enterprise portal with general information about the nature of the difference between the portal, enterprise portal is important for enterprise customers, partners and employees of their own services. It should be personalized (personalization here is not just the page), should provide a range of online services, allows customers, partners and employees to use enterprise portal to obtain the necessary knowledge / information, to the adoption of Enterprise Portal and Enterprise interactive applications and transaction processing.
Online stores (Storefront): In order to expand the market of products and services, extended sales channels and increase sales, businesses should establish a brand identity with its own online stores. It should be noted that the so-called chain-line is not to say that the use of language in various countries set up online stores, this is only one form should be more ways to shop online businesses to join the various web-based entities, such as portal, business market (e-Marketplace), the city engine, so that sales channels are all over the Web space.
Group Intranet (Intranet) and Knowledge Base (Knowledge Base): Group's global corporate intranet so that employees can be a global, effective communication and collaboration, enterprises take full advantage of global resources to enhance overall productivity. Knowledge Group is able to provide a rich collaborative staff work effectively required knowledge to the greatest extent possible to improve the staff unit of output.
Supply chain (Supply Chain) Management: In order to enhance the overall competitiveness of enterprises, enterprises often need to maintain and improve their relationship with their suppliers to take the form of lines of Procurement methods and to minimize operating costs, and to do this, you must To create a private channel of trade relations and supply chain e-business applications to achieve this goal.
Customer Service (Customer Service): through the establishment of such customer-oriented or self-service portal to achieve cross-sales Web site sales, improve customer intimacy and satisfaction, and reduce the cost of the services.
Distribution (Distribution) Management: the establishment of distribution management applications enable businesses to expand distribution channels quickly and tap new market opportunities. At the same time, enterprises can to reduce training costs, the cost of the services and product distribution costs, and reduce storage costs.
Provide asp (Application Service Provider) services: through the Web on the deployment of ASP services, enterprises can obtain new and additional revenue. ASP provided by the A (Application) should be the enterprise's core competitiveness of the performance figures, under normal circumstances, its scope may be included in the above-mentioned six kinds of e-business applications of five kinds: enterprise portal, on-line chain , supply chain management, customer service and distribution management.
In order to implement these e-business applications, no more than several means: by their own IT departments and the implementation of specific plans, outsourcing software solutions provider company or plan and implement, of course, solution or the implementation of the plan may include platform software or the procurement of specialized software modules. However, regardless of their own IT departments or outsourcing solutions provider, given the implementation of its plans are fully operational prior to the application. Once the application has been deployed, as a result of business environment and business demand for continuous improvement and constant change, these e-business applications need to be amended, inevitably, need to be updated to comply with the new e-business processes. In the end, the management of enterprises and may even want to enterprise employees, customers and partners, respectively, the application of custom specific to get the most out of commercial interests and to remain competitive.
In these applications may be updated, the following three may be the most important is also the most common:
Often add a new e-business applications, often every few weeks or occur once every few months;
Often have to change the e-business processes, which often occurs a week or once every few days;
Often should the user's needs change, which occurs every hour even, especially when the need for each customer, each partner or each corporate staff customize their preferred time of e-business applications.
There is no doubt, e-oriented enterprises must face the challenge of this issue, the application of the regular updates the deployment of e-business applications in today's biggest issues, how to enhance the capacity of enterprises to respond to reduce spending in response to enhance the competitiveness of enterprises is all of the e-business must face.
The wrong solution: complex systems and docking solutions
In order to achieve the enterprise's core competitiveness to maintain the objective of most enterprises are working hard, and there is no doubt that they invested in IT at a large number of funds and resources, then choose whether or not they correct? In business, it is undoubtedly right that "there is no equivalent to non-business e-commerce will be the Treasury", but the way to do that? They have taken the right approach you?
Let us first take a look at how most businesses operate?
At present, the building in front of those I have mentioned a time when e-business applications, programmers are generally adopts the "independent solutions" to be implemented. In other words, for each application, they are required for each enterprise resources or external resources to prepare to connect code to enable the application to run. These resources include: legacy systems (legacy systems) and databases, Web applications and Web resources, as well as the Web services are emerging.
Programmers also need to write more code to make a large number of users to access each application, for example, through the company's Web site, such as the use of internal desktop applications and so on. As a result of these applications are "hard" a product of programming, almost difficult to customize. When the need to integrate into the new e-business processes, the need for additional user access interface, the need for the succession of different e-business applications that provide users with a more complete value-added services, all of it all had to design from the original start . Why is this so? Because all the applications are developed from the perspective of a one-time implementation, and applications do not require a change from a specific programmer to complete. In this way, through the inter-application integration approach to achieve reuse of e-business applications has become unusually difficult.
Since each application has its own unique infrastructure, the deployment of these applications, change and maintenance are the extraordinarily high price. The enterprise shall not set the application configuration is not unique to professional and technical personnel, and maintain with the different technical solutions provider or supplier in close contact. At the same time that these applications can not be easily inherited, nor with the size of the expansion of business enterprises and easily extended to achieve the scale of application.
We are well aware that, even if there is only one e-business applications, the creation, maintenance and customization costs and complexity of the case has been astronomical. Moreover, to involve a number of such applications, its cost can be as high as the common sense.
Let us study when a number of enterprises to deploy e-business applications such circumstances:
The first application of the enterprises to pay the total cost of the application should be the development and deployment costs, as well as the temporal operators of the maintenance and updating costs.
The second application, application development and deployment of cost is the same, but enterprises need to be extra integration cost, and because the entire enterprise application environments become more complex, and its operating state when the cost of maintenance and updating of the form may be exponentially.
Similarly, when the third, the fourth application is deployed, enterprises, the expenses incurred may be alarmingly high.
E-business applications such as the actual operations of business enterprises, not only the size of the rapid growth and even cause the opposite effect, because at this time, IT departments have to hire more employees and spend more money to manage these complex and Application of chaos, and the maintenance of a wide range of bearing applications infrastructure.
Earlier emergence of e-commerce technologies such as EDI, web EDI (may be XML-based), content server, application server, EAI (Enterprise Application Integration), as well as those for the creation of a single enterprise portal and other e-business applications (the above-mentioned seven kinds of applications) and the design of the independent solutions can not solve this problem. They are powerless because they do not, without exception, are based on the complexity of application connectivity, integration does not have a good model of application development capabilities, and they are the program code, through the realization of complex applications to connect users to connect, e-commerce applications and other information system. The realization of this approach can not effectively solve the frequent changes of e-business processes and the large cost of the trigger and can not effectively address the needs of various types of user customization.
The correct solution: Web services and business Web
In this section, I will describe a problem to solve all of the above solutions.
E-commerce solutions need to be freed from the realization of an independent model, the need to give up the realization of complex systems methods. An effective e-business applications should not be based solely on the programmer as well as those of complex code. For e-commerce, the traditional programmers led by the field from where the development model should be driven by the user of the export-oriented development model to replace Lane. Serial lengthy development cycle should be immediate, rapid application assembly replaced. At the same time, the application of this nature should be high on customizability. If you explore the nature of their business, which is from time-tested technology of the business concept: "real-time manufacturing" and "scalable scale" and so on, we need to do is the traditional business concept to extend to e-commerce.
Read the description of the previous paragraph, we may believe that the need for a more technical nature of change, a matter of fact, not.
XML-based Web services technology to solve this problem is the best means. The use of Web services will change the current development model and the scale of the cost of application deployment. A variety of Web services to sub-table to achieve a certain amount of e-commerce functionality, e-commerce through a variety of Web services composition and integration to create a dynamic e-business applications. Web services can be unified to package information, behavior, performance data and business processes without having to consider applications where the environment is what systems and equipment.
Through the use of Web services, enterprises can not be possible before the adoption of the abstract and mixed their own e-commerce component. When an enterprise's core competitive edge component, the core competitiveness of these can be easily shared among different enterprises, while the structure of e-business applications across the enterprise to create business Web.
Web in the business there would be no need for the use of an e-business applications and e-commerce applications to buy this load applications. Web services is a no need to purchase and deploy the components, such components have been deployed to the Internet first, and then there's a new type of components available, all applications need to be able to connect only the Internet, you can use and integration of Web services. Through the use of Web services, the development of a significant reduction in the price, and programmers do not interact with a variety of platforms, he only needs to interact with a component, that is, Web services, Web services call at the same time we adopt the standard interface of xml and related technology, to achieve a price in the code also has dropped significantly. Through the use of Web services, deployment and significantly reduce the cost of integration, process of change is also no need to change the lot of the code, and even through the tools, but also no need to change the program code. At the same time as new Web services technologies such as WSDL / UDDI / WSFL of large-scale use, Web services for dynamic run-time state assembly will become a reality, even at the same time each user should be the needs of users in real-time assembly.
Web services are the future?
Authoritative study of the global IT industry comment Gartner Group in the future 5 years, the development of Web services have done a forecast:
2001, Web services development tools framework will be completed to develop an open major. Developers to buy into these service-oriented development tools. At the same time, they will start construction of the actual use of the Web service.
In 2002, a large number of commercial Web services will be the emergence of a large number of consumer-oriented B2C Web services will be used.
2003, UDDI registration center should be the development of Web services has become increasingly important, which are increasingly data-rich business. Private UDDI registry will be put into use to support services within the exchange of information. Government's Web services (e-Government) applications will continue to emerge.
In 2004, various types of enterprises will be universally accepted Web services-based model of business applications, and services will be centralized computing model to enter adolescence. Private UDDI registry is still in the various types of applications with a superior position. New revenue models and business channels will be everywhere. 40% of the financial services financial services will use the Web service model. And 35% of online government services will be provided in the form of Web services.
In 2005, the public UDDI Business Registry as a public information clearing-house mechanism and the use of a lot. Similarly a large number of dynamic services will be put into use.
At the same time we have seen all the major technology providers in accordance with the Gartner Group forecasts have been put in place tools to build Web services: Microsoft's Visual Studio. NET, IBM's Web Service Toolkit, SUN and so on the Sun ONE. Web Service-based technical standards for public SOAP / WSDL / UDDI / WSFL or fact has become the industry standard, or the process of being developed, major technology providers and traditional commercial enterprises are put into a standard framework for the development and application of. Web services as a leader in architecture and Microsoft have begun to IBM in the global promotion of Web services technology. We have reason to believe that Web services will become the future mainstream of dynamic Web technologies business.
What are Web services?
We have from the perspective of business needs and technical feasibility of the realization of the Web to discuss the feasibility and necessity of services. As most readers of the technical staff, so I believe that a variety of Web services technology will be very interested in the structure of the Web service must be more interested in the process of how a specific use of Web services Case structure will be very interested in this article, I will follow-up series to describe each part and provide the answer.
Web Service Technology / comment sites
WebServices.ORG, Web services technology integrated site.
IBM developerWorks / Web Service Zone, IBM's Web Services Technology Resource Center
MSDN Online Web Services Developer Resources, Microsoft's Web services, Web site developers resources
ITPapers / Web Service, ITPapers reviews of Web services to resolve B2B e-business applications and integrated interactive InterOP Stack series of technical standards
UDDI Executive White Paper, UDDI-China.org, UDDI.org
UDDI Technical White Paper, UDDI-China.org, UDDI.org
UDDI programmers API specification, UDDI-China.org, UDDI.org
UDDI Data Structure Reference, UDDI-China.org, UDDI.org
Web Service Description Language (WSDL) 1.0, IBM, 25 Sep 2000
SOAP: Simple Object Access Protocol Specification 1.1, IBM, Microsoft, DevelopMentor, 2000
Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 (Second Edition), W3C, 6 Oct 2000
About the author
CHAI Xiao-Lu: Shanghai too easy to e-commerce Technology Co., Ltd. (DealEasy) Chief System Architect, xml technology consultant. UDDI-China.org core members. Fudan University in 2000 a master's degree in computer science, computer science in the International Academic Conference (ICSC), the Asia-Pacific Seminar on XML technologies (XML Asia / Pacific'99), the Chinese XML technical seminar (Beijing), computer science journals various types of international and domestic major conferences and journals published more than paper. Specializing in XML-based system integration and data exchange of technical studies, at the same time on the database, object-oriented technologies such as technology and know more about CSCW. In 2001 joined the UDDI Advisor Group, participated in the development of the UDDI Specification V2.
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