Ubuntu Linux operating system, user management
As you noted, day by day in the use of ubuntu, the majority of the tasks were too easy to complete. However, when you are ready to expand your application in ubuntu, for example, the use of new applications, set up a home network, as well as a new user to increase the time what would happen then? This article will brief guide to share with you some techniques, including the creation and management of other users, use of other techniques to verify the small number of key differences between, as well as a number of skills related to root user. Perhaps the most critical areas is that these steps can help you strengthen the system of ubuntu, it is not just another as your personal desktop computers only.
The first chapter, understanding of ubuntu your ubuntu system user security and multi-purpose, heavily dependent on how you assign permissions to users, as well as methods of their use. And analysis of those old-fashioned and cumbersome compared to the details and understand ubuntu GNU / Linux environment is a principle of how to deal with users, perhaps even more important.
First of all, when you install ubuntu, you will be asked to create a user account, the initial user account will be in the home directory of the files stored in the user files associated with this also applies to those followed by the creation of the users, However, you first create a user account, there are some special things.
Take my example, when I installed ubuntu, I created a "mark" user account. This mark is not only my first ubuntu users, it is automatically granted a special, very powerful permissions, these permissions to other users is not available. My mark account can create users, change files and directories, as well as the completion of ubuntu on the nature of a number of administrator functions, which are usually important to use another user account "root" to be completed.
Therefore, in ubuntu, you should understand the following three key customers:
* In the ubuntu installation created by the initial user name in my mark here
* Root user, usually with the highest authority, and therefore is considered an administrator.
* All other users, I am referring to those after the installation of an additional basic user
This above-mentioned three types of users, each category has its own folder, and their own unique permissions, and, most importantly, their ubuntu system you can play a specific role. In the following paragraphs, I will explain how to activate and use them. Let us begin from the basic user.
Note: Now, I am assuming that the identity of the user in the initial landing of ubuntu, because only in this way, you will have to carry out these tasks the following required permissions.
Chapter II, the creation and management of primary users at home or when you installed ubuntu the office, the inevitable, there will be other people to beg you for allowing them to use the system. Some people may want to experience the system in the default installation of those applications is very cool one, but it was very much like to look at, GNU / Linux force. In other words, you need a good way to give them permission to log in, but those systems can not access the key functions.
The first step: the adoption of a tool for users and groups.
Users and user groups through the tool, you can easily create a basic user. Method? Open your main menu, there is no option to see system? Selected, and then you can select users and groups.
Note the following message appears:
This is a very important message, to express it is that certain characteristics of ubuntu. In the majority of GNU / Linux systems, user privileges is usually root, and root password is the corresponding password. However, in ubuntu, this privilege of the user, that is, you create the initial users, therefore, you must enter the password for this user account.
Once you enter your password, you will have a wide range of operation of all the permissions the administrator tools. I will be in the "super-users to understand," one of the reasons for this further elaboration.
Step two: add a new user
You should now see the users and groups have the tool. Now, the increase in users to choose the right button, and your account is included in the group the choice of what, depending on what you add is the nature of the user, and you want your ubuntu to what kind of operation. If you just want to add a user basis, so that other people can access to your ubuntu system, then the default option to meet this requirement.
For example, I will add my son John as my system is based on ubuntu users, so that he will be able to enjoy my computer some great GNU / Linux game. The following is an example of user information, the attention, I want to give my son is safe and good memory account, so I chose to manually set a password.
Figure 2: Increase the basic rights of a new user
You press the "OK" button before you click on the top of the "User permissions" tab. No matter what, when you want to create a new user, this is a very important step.
In this tab, you must note that the basis of default to those users access. Perhaps you want to change some of these, such as "surveillance system log" and "to connect to the network", and so on. Hook on any of the options will be allowed to allow users to use. Also convinced that it should not "perform administrative tasks" on the hook.
Once you have the authority to give new users are completely satisfied, press the OK button. Tu, at this time, it should be returned to the user and group tool main window. Now, scroll down, you know you see the new user. Here, I is the increase in: john. Figure III Figure 3: the success of adding a user
Finally, you add new users after the successful completion, do not forget to click an OK button. So, you create the account, as well as the increase in information has been preserved, ubuntu will automatically create a home directory of the directory of users of the new document. At this point, your new system, users will be able to visit and enjoy the ubuntu GNU / Linux has been fun.
If for some reason, failed landing, please refer to the failure of this article the best approach.
The third step is to carry out further changes
It should be noted that, as long as you wish, you can choose a user name and press the Properties button to change the attributes of users. Or, if the user is no longer a day, the value of existence, you can select it and press the delete button.
If you decide to remove the basis for a first time user, you should know that the user corresponding to files and folders will not be automatically removed, only the user's landing permission will be removed. This is very important advanced features, because it allows you to not lose any document under the premise of the restoration of the deletion of your user.
If you really want the user to completely remove the file directory, you need to provide super-user command. This is a primary user ubuntu steps should not, of course, I am in the "super-users to understand" there are some detail.
Chapter III: Creating and managing user groups will be like john Although such a new user to keep in his or her own group of users did not find anything wrong, but perhaps you would like a new user specifically assigned to another of the group. This is not just in the management of user permissions to provide a convenient, but also provides a way to share files, and other facilitation.
Of course, you do not need the distribution of each new user to the group, because by default these users are assigned to their own personal group. However, if you want assigned to the custom of the group, so here are some key steps.
The first step: start the Users and Groups tool.
And as mentioned above, the main menu through your visit to this tool. Of course, before you modify or use the "User" option is that you should click on the "Grouo" label. And then pulled down until you see the new users so far. Need to note that with the user name of the group has been added.
Step two: add a group
Now, press the "Add Group" button in this. You can see the chart below:
Figure 4: Add users to a specific group
Please look at my example, in Figure 4, I created a new name "desktopusers" group, and then select my new user john. The middle by pressing the "Add" button, I will add john to the group. Also, you can also hold down the Ctrl key to select multiple users, and to group them together, the number of open. Just want to confirm, when you do not forget to complete a selection click on the "add" button.
Well, when you add to your group a number of new users are satisfied, click the "OK" button. Figure 5.
Figure 5: Add the success of a new group
Chapter IV: Understanding super-user
Just now, I briefly mentioned in the ubuntu, there are three types of key users. This chapter will tell you why there is a specific attribute, as well as the root user and the initial user account that the key difference between.
You must have noticed, in order to implement the steps above, any one, you need to visit the initial user's identity, that is, during the installation process you create an account first. The user is automatically assigned super-user privileges (also known as sudo). Through the super-user account, you can carry out system-level management and modification.
In GNU / Linux, the most powerful super-user is root. Of course, you may have found, root account is not automatically included in the ubuntu installation details. By default, root account has not been activated for you to use. Where you have to use the local super-user permissions, ubuntu allows you to use sudo initial users of the junction with the task to complete. For example, if you want to delete the home directory of a basic user's file directory, you can use the following Terminal command:
cd / home
sudo delete john
You need to provide your initial user password sudo command to execute. This prevents the use you have to root for some of the primary system management, while fully allowing another account to act as super-user, but also to protect the security of your system deficiencies.
Then, root in the end is how the case?
In order to avoid the direct use, ubuntu to some extent, hidden in the root account, unless you really have to when necessary. As an alternative, the management needs of virtually all authority is given to the initial of your user account.
However, when you are on your ubuntu system a number of key changes or enhancements, those examples of how the matter? I must point out that these users should not be a primary concern. However, if you are out and I have a similar situation, for example, you tried to add some of the importance of ubuntu like LTSP (LTSP is Linux Terminal Server Project's initials. The purpose of the installation is to provide the use of multiple workstation environments servo browser, which is often said that the thin-client) of things, at this time, you may need to resort to the root.
Once again, in your decision to activate the root account, I would like to express my point of view, that is, you should not be used in day-to-day management of the root, and, if you are just a new ubuntu system, I read some say "you need to root user landing "of the document, then best not to follow these steps.
Well, if you have read here, then you will not need any so-called simple answers. Would like to activate the root user in ubuntu, you need only the first chapter of the implementation of those steps to follow it. However, you need to select the root user account and view its properties tab, where you can manually set the root password and press OK twice to save your changes. I would also like to remind you, not as day-to-day account of the root user, as well as the best in the need to rely on when the initial account and sudo.
Chapter V: Some problems
For me, I very rarely used in the creation and management of users encounter problems when. However, there are some things you may want to remember.
1 landing error.
As before you talk about the steps above to add a new user, but have encountered some strange errors, then you may be in the user attributes the problem of choice of some effort. Maybe you encountered the problem of including in the following example: $ HOME / .dmrc configuration problems, or HOME / user directory does not exist, then the default temporary directory will be turned into / root.
In both cases, the errors are due to the new user's directory was not configured right arising from or create. To resolve this problem is very simple, just delete this user, and then follow the steps above to again. This time, however, when adding users, click the "Advanced" tab, ensure the home directory of the line shown is:
/ HOME / $ user
Obviously, this refers specifically to a new user's initial creation process.
2 changes can not be saved.
I encountered this problem frequently than you might imagine many more, it seems that for some time, these steps of the above press the OK button in that some can not understand. You not only need to attribute a specific window by pressing OK button, but also users and groups in the main window again so that you can preserve the normal.
Chapter VI: Summary
Now, you already know in ubuntu to create and manage multiple users all the steps. More importantly, you need to run a command or perform an operation needs root permissions, you can understand what you are doing. Through these steps to explain, you will be able to guarantee security and stability of other people share your ubuntu system strong and fun!
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