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DNS in Windows Server 2008 enhancements

Print View , by: iSee ,Total views: 21 ,Word Count: 2201 ,Date: Thu, 28 May 2009 Time: 4:38 AM

Windows NT 4.0 since the beginning, Microsoft has the Domain Name system (DNS) server service to include various versions of the Windows Server. DNS is a hierarchical structure of the distributed database, which contains various types of data to DNS domain name (such as IP address) mapping. With Windows Server 2008 release, DNS Server service will include the new area loaded background, and enhance the support for IPv6, support for read-only domain controller (RODC) and can carry a single label name global.

Background of regional load

Windows Server? 2008 The DNS server service region through the implementation of the background load increased the speed of data retrieval. The past, when Windows Server 2003 in the DNS server service after the attempt to restart the Active Directory to retrieve the DNS data, with the Active Directory? A large number of records contained in the region as long as the business has experienced an hour or even longer delays . In the period of such delay, DNS server for any DNS hosting services to the region are not available to client requests.

To resolve this problem, Windows Server 2008's DNS server service will start in the background region from the Active Directory data retrieval to data from other regions to respond to the request. In the service starts, it will create one or more threads to load the implementation of Active Directory is stored in the region. As a result of a separate thread to load the respective regions based on Active Directory, so loaded at the same time in the region, DNS Server service can respond to inquiries. If the DNS client requests have to load the data in the region, DNS server will make the appropriate response. If the requested data is located in a not yet fully search the area, DNS server will be changed from Active Directory to retrieve specific data.

The storage area in the document information, such a load in the region during the retrieval from the Active Directory-specific data also provides additional benefits - that is, DNS server to respond immediately to requests for services. When the region to document storage, the service must read the document in sequence, until you find the data.

Enhanced support for IPv6

We have in previous versions of this column have been described in IPv6, it is a new component of the Internet standard protocols. IPv6 aims to solve the current version (IPv4) the existence of a wide range of issues, such as address depletion, security, auto-configuration and scalability requirements.

IPv6, a difference is its length of 128-bit addresses, and IPv4 address is only 32. IPv6 address using a colon hexadecimal notation. Each hexadecimal digits IPv6 address is four. Expressed complete IPv6 address is divided into eight of the 32 hexadecimal digits, separated by a colon. Complete IPv6 address expressed in an example for the FD91: 2ADD: 715A: 2111: DD48: AB34: D07C: 3914.

IPv6 addresses are IPv6 host name resolution using DNS records, known as the AAAA record (pronounced "quad-A"). For the reverse name resolution, IPv6 domain to use IP6.ARPA by the 32-digit IPv6 address in hexadecimal digits are each reverse order into the reverse domain hierarchy in a separate layer. For example, the address FD91: 2ADD: 715A: 2111: DD48: AB34: D07C: 3914 reverse lookup of the domain name 4.1.9.3.C.7.0.D.4.3.BA8.4.DD1.1.1.2.A.5.1. 7.DDA2.1.9.DFIP6.ARPA.

Windows Server 2003's DNS servers to support IPv6 services to the forward and reverse name resolution; however, this support has not been fully integrated. For example, in Windows Server 2003 DNS Manager plug-in to create IPv6 address records (just discussed AAAA records), we must right-click the region, click Other New Records (new record), and then double-click IPv6 Host ( AAAA) as a resource record type. Windows Server 2008 in the DNS Manager to add a plug-in AAAA records, the need to right-click the region name, and then click New Host (new host) (A or AAAA). In the New Host (new host) dialog box, you can type the IPv4 or IPv6 address. Figure 1 is an example.

DNS in Windows Server 2008 enhancements

Figure 1

Better support for IPv6 is another example of IPv6 backward region. Windows Server 2003 in the DNS Manager to create a reverse lookup plug-in area, must be in New Zone Wizard (new regional guide) of the Reverse Lookup Zone Name (reverse lookup regional name) manual page, type the name of the reverse area. DNS reverse zone name is an example 1.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.8.bd0.1.0.0.2.ip6.arpa (for the IPv6 subnet prefix 2001: db8: 0:1:: / 64, that in order to complete 2001 : 0db8: 0000:0001:: / 64).

Windows Server 2008's DNS Manager plug-in IPv6 reverse zone is now completely integrated into the New Zone wizard (a new regional guides) in the. This guide has a new page, it will prompt you to select IPv4 Reverse Lookup Zones or Reverse Lookup Zones IPv6. Reverse Lookup Zones for IPv6, simply type the IPv6 subnet prefix, the wizard will automatically create a region for you. Figure 2 is an example.

DNS in Windows Server 2008 enhancements

Figure 2 Reverse query name IPv6 regional

Reverse for another region enhancements DNS Manager is a plug-in shows that IPv6 pointer (PTR) records the method. Figure 3 illustrates the Windows Server 2003's DNS Manager plug-in how to display the PTR record.

DNS in Windows Server 2008 enhancements

Figure 3 Windows Server 2003 in the PTR record of IPv6

Although this shows that an accurate reflection of the IPv6 reverse DNS domain name space structure, but it makes IPv6 address PTR records management more difficult. Figure 4 shows the Windows Server 2008 plug-in how DNS Manager PTR records show.

DNS in Windows Server 2008 enhancements

Figure 4 Windows Server 2008 in the PTR record of IPv6

Windows Server 2003 in the DNS server service to support the operation of IPv6, but it must be through dnscmd / config / EnableIPv6 1 command to manually start it. The default Windows Server 2008 support for IPv6 operation. Dnscmd.exe command-line tool has been updated in the command-line options to receive IPv6 address. In addition, DNS server service is now available to the IPv6-only server for recursive queries, and server list transponder may include two types of IPv4 and IPv6 addresses.

Read-only domain controller support

Windows Server 2008 also introduces the RODC, it is a new domain controller, Active Directory contains information and the implementation of the read-only copy of Active Directory, but can not be directly configured. RODC susceptible to attack, can be placed in the physical domain controller can not be guaranteed the security or network contains the location of potentially malicious hosts.

The RODC, Windows Server 2008's DNS server service to support the new type of main read-only region. When the computer into a RODC, it will use all the DNS application directory partition to copy a complete copy of the CD, including the domain partition, ForestDNSZone and DomainDNSZone. This ensures that the RODC server running DNS services are stored in non-domain controller RODC directory partition in the DNS arbitrary read-only copy of the complete region. Can view the RODC can not be changed but the main content area read-only. Must be in non-domain controller RODC to change the contents of the region.

Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista? Supports TCP / IP protocol NetBIOS (NetBT). NetBT name to use NetBIOS to identify the NetBIOS session layer application. The current version of Windows rely on the Windows Sockets-based applications and the network to achieve the DNS name resolution, even though they no longer need to use WINS to achieve the NetBIOS name resolution, but many are still Microsoft customers to deploy their networks WINS, to support the NetBT and an earlier version of the application throughout the organization to provide single-label name of the name resolution. Single-label name usually refers to an important organization, it is well known and widely used server (such as e-mail server, Web server or central line-of-business applications for the server).

To allow only the use of DNS throughout the organization to resolve these single-label name, a number of organizations required to add A records DNS domain, so that Windows-based DNS client to resolve the name directly, without having to consider the distribution of the DNS domain suffix or suffix search list.

GlobalNames regional

Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista? Supports TCP / IP protocol NetBIOS (NetBT). NetBT name to use NetBIOS to identify the NetBIOS session layer application. The current version of Windows rely on the Windows Sockets-based applications and the network to achieve the DNS name resolution, even though they no longer need to use WINS to achieve the NetBIOS name resolution, but many are still Microsoft customers to deploy their networks WINS, to support the NetBT and an earlier version of the application throughout the organization to provide single-label name of the name resolution. Single-label name usually refers to an important organization, it is well known and widely used server (such as e-mail server, Web server or central line-of-business applications for the server).

To allow only the use of DNS throughout the organization to resolve these single-label name, a number of organizations required to add A records DNS domain, so that Windows-based DNS client to resolve the name directly, without having to consider the distribution of the DNS domain suffix or suffix search list.

For example, assume that organizations have contoso.com or CWEB a central Web server, which is a member of central.contoso.com domain. To be allocated to the DNS client DNS domain suffix wcoast.contoso.com, central.contoso.com or CWEB server when ecoast.contoso.com single label name, network administrators must cweb.wcoast.contoso.com and cweb.ecoast.contoso.com, respectively, to create two additional A records. However, bear in mind the need to change the allocation of IPv4 address or a new name for the single-label name to maintain manually create the A record.

If the WINS for the old version contoso.com has NetBT applications, network administrators can single static WINS records added to the WINS infrastructure to implement the single-label name of the name resolution CWEB. If the IPv4 address changes, just change the single-static WINS records. In single-label name in the WINS more easy to manage, many Windows-based network will be a static WINS record for single-label name.

Provided in single-label DNS name solution, the management of it as easily as static WINS record, Windows Server 2008's DNS server service to support the new regional GlobalNames known to store single-label name. The scope of this area is usually a copy of Lin, which in the entire Active Directory forest to provide single-label name resolution. In addition, if the user location (SRV) resource record to the location of regional GlobalNames release, GlobalNames region may contain a number of forests in support of the organization single-label name resolution.

With WINS different, GlobalNames region aimed at a limited set of host name (usually the IT organization managed by a central server and key server) to provide single-label name resolution. GlobalNames region is not used to store IPv4 addresses may change the desktop computer or other server name, and it does not support the DNS dynamic update. It is the most commonly used to store an alias (CNAME) resource record to a single label name will be mapped to fully qualified domain name (FQDN). WINS for the current network, GlobalNames region usually has a static configuration of WINS in the IT management of the resource record name.

Regional GlobalNames only competent in all DNS servers running Windows Server 2008 when the provision of single-label name resolution. However, for any region are not in charge of the other DNS servers may be running older versions of Windows or other operating system. GlobalNames region in the forest must be unique.

To provide the best performance and scalability, GlobalNames region will be integrated with Active Directory, and it should be used to configure the local copy of DNS servers for each charge. This operation must be completed in order to support the deployment of a number of Lin GlobalNames region.


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