Windows Server 2008 management tool
A skilled and there is a certain degree of technical depth of the server administrator, they are often abandoned and friendly graphical interface and choose the command to use the management server. This will not only be able to enhance the operational efficiency, but also in the command line can be achieved under the graphical interface of many of the tasks can not be completed. For Windows Server 2008 server operating system for this, especially, make the best use of the liberation of the administrator commands to a large extent. I introduce to you the following in the Server 2008 in a number of very useful commands.
1. ServerManagerCMD order to use the server management
ServerManagerCMD is the Server Manager command line tool, used to support three important steps: add and remove roles, role services and features, as well as the role of the installation for the show, the role of services, functions. The specific parameters to the command line you can enter "ServerManagerCMD /?" To view. One-query,-install,-remove the three most commonly used parameters, namely the user's query, install and remove server roles, role services and features. I, respectively, following presentation of the usage of these three parameters.
At the command prompt window, type the command "ServerManagerCMD-query", then return to the server can view the configuration and function, thereby eliminating the need for the "Service Manager" in the graphical interface to switch back and forth. The result will be displayed at a glance: the roles and functions will be divided into two groups, and the role has been installed, role services, features and green shows the front of the [X] logo is not installed in front of the display is white logo for the . As shown in Figure 1 of the server I installed server roles: Active Directory Domain Services, DNS server, Windows deployment services, functional components are installed: TFTP client, Group Policy Manager. In addition, the role of the installation services to the level of the structure shown in the following role. (Figure 1)
I have a skill and like to share: When the server has multiple roles, role services and features component, if the administrator to see if the installation of an object that will be too much trouble. In fact, support the pipeline ServerManagerCMD-query command "|", we can do: if we are to see if the server is installed Group Policy Management component, you can enter the command line "ServerManagerCmd.exe-query | GPMC", after the carriage return If this component will be installed to open the tool, or else they will show the error message (such as entering the command "ServerManagerCmd.exe-query | RSAT-TS" to see if the installation of the Terminal Services tools, because there is no installation will be the output error). (Figure 2)
Windows Server 2008 by default does not install the telnet client, if we are to install the functional components, can be under the command prompt type the command "ServerManagerCmd.exe-install Telnet-Client-resultPath installResult.xml" and enter. At this time began to Telnet-Client component installation features, and will show that installation of the progress of real-time (percentage), the installation is complete soon. In the order, "Telnet-Client" is the Telnet client's system name, the name must be in English, not Chinese, or will display an "invalid role, role services or features." Of course, a skilled server administrator to remember these names should not be difficult. If you have forgotten can be ordered through the above query "ServerManagerCmd.exe-query" to see. "-ResultPath installResult.xml" parameters of the role of XML-based format will be just the result of the operation installResult.xml saved to file. In addition, if the role of the installation need to restart the computer after we can add a parameter "-restart", in order to achieve the installation of automatic restart after the completion of the installation of the system so that the entry into force earlier. (Figure 3)
To delete the server roles, role services or features and components of its method of operation similar to the above, just change the parameter order ServerManagerCmd.exe. For example, at the same time we have to delete the "Windows Deployment Services" role and "TFTP client" function components, can be under the command prompt type the command "ServerManagerCMD-remove WDS TFTP-Client" and enter. And then started to delete and display deleted progress, wait a moment to complete the task to delete. If you want to remove more of the role or function, only the role or function name followed by enter and a space separate from each other can be, this far in the operation of a graphical interface to be much faster. (Figure 4)
2, rapid deployment of server components
Server configuration is not just technology live, and some jobs they often. Server administrator how to achieve the rapid deployment of servers in order to enhance the efficiency of this self-liberation? Make the best use of command and use of this script is a set of immediate solutions, the following I give a few actual cases.
(1). Configure the firewall
Server security firewall configuration is an important aspect of deployment is also a more complicated task. Especially for this kind of Windows Server 2008 server platform, it features a firewall system is a very powerful and very large items can be configured. To share the following order, as well as a number of practical case of a configuration.
Open the command prompt type the command enter "netsh firewall show state" and then return to view the status of the firewall, the results from the show can be seen in the various functional modules firewall and enable the situation of the disabled. Command "netsh firewall set opmode disable" to disable the firewall system, contrary to the command "netsh firewall set opmode enable" the firewall can be enabled. (Figure 5)
Next, we carried out through the command-line firewall configuration, allow access for file and print sharing as well as the DNS query. Open the command prompt type the command "netsh firewall add portopening UDP 53 DNS-Server" and then return to order after the implementation of the server will be able to respond to DNS client queries and to provide DNS service, and very simple to get a command. We adopted the following command to achieve the client can access file and print sharing server, enter and use the command: "netsh firewall add portopening UDP 137 Netbios-ns" (Client Access server to allow UDP port 137 protocol), "netsh firewall add portopening UDP 138 Netbios-dgm "(allow access to UDP port 138 protocol)," netsh firewall add portopening TCP 139 Netbios-ssn "(allow access to TCP port 139 protocol)," netsh firewall add portopening TCP 445 Netbios-ds "(The agreement allows access to TCP port 445). After command execution, file and print sharing the necessary firewall ports are released, we try from the client was a successful visit. Although the command above, but a similar format is also very good in mind. (Figure 6)
(2). The script in the application under the Server Core
Server Core is a gorgeous abandon Windows Server 2008 to install a minimum function of the server version, Server Core configuration can not be separated from the command line and scripts. Under the command line "cd cd c: windowssystem32" to the system32 directory, type "cscript SCregEdit.wsf / di" and then enter, it will all common Server Core configurations are listed in order of all without the need Administrators own. Which, SCregEdit.wsf is a Server Core-specific script, it has many parameters for administrators. Enter "Cscript slmgr.vbs-dlv" shows the authority of the state of the server. If we are to under the Server Core Remote Desktop enabled, be the first to open the path of an order under the Jump to system32 then run the command "cscript SCregEdit.wsf / Ar 0" Enable Remote Desktop. The next step is to configure the firewall to open ports used by Remote Desktop, implementation named "netsh firewall add portopening TCP 3389 Remote-Desktop" can be. Server Core script is a very useful resource, we should be good to tap and use. (Figure 7)
(3). Other scripts and command-line tool
In Windows Server 2008 also includes a powerful command-line tool for PowerShell, it is far more powerful of the CMD server systems more feasible. By default PowerShell does not install the modules, we can through the command line
ServerManagerCmd.exe order to install, or run "ServerManagerCmd.exe-install PowerShell" can. After the installation is complete the implementation of "Start" → "All Programs" → "Windows PowerShell 1.0" → "Windows PowerShell" you can run PowerShell. Running "get-command | more" and all of the PowerShell commands and sub-screen display. PowerShell command consists of two parts, very readable, the administrator can guess the name of the same name, the command of the role of the order. For example, we would like to visit the registry in PowerShell, executable "cd-path hklm:" can enter the primary key HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE registry path, continue to implement the "dir" shows that the primary key under HKLM each sub-key, the implementation of "cd SoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionRun" into the system under self-starting, the implementation of "gp. *" will display the RUN of the key attributes, as well as the following, the output results RUN bit in front of four of the attributes, which an administrator can analyze whether the normal startup items. Secondly, such as the PowerShell command line we enter the command "Get-Process | Out-File-FilePath C: process.txt" and "Get-Service | Out-File-FilePath C: srver.txt" could be the process of the current server and their service to the state of the output file, in the future maintenance of the server can be used as comparison. In fact, PowerShell completely replace the CMD tool, which can be completed almost all of the system, in-depth study to improve the management efficiency of PowerShell is indeed very useful. (Figure 8)
In addition, WinRM is also a very useful management tool. WinRM the use of remote server management, is not safe and can reduce red tape RPC connections, only need to use HTTP or HTTPS can be had, which is the scene across the firewall management very useful. First of all, under the command line "WinRM QuickConfig", then type "y" to enable remote management WinRM. Then continue to carry out orders "WINRM Enum Winrm / Config / Listener" can see the server listening on the configuration, as shown in Figure 9 at http listening on port 80 of the state, so that through the browser client to administer the server. WMI is also the administrator of the server management tools available, in actual combat in the preparation of WMI script to Deputy Administrator needs to complete some administrators to pay a lot of energy and a large number of repeat operation. (Figure 9)
3, access to detailed information server
For servers, management and monitoring is simultaneously. Server administrators need to keep abreast of the server hardware and software and its operation in the Windows Server 2008 do not need to use third-party tools in the command line can achieve.
In the command-line command under systeminfo.exe, it can be seen on the operating system and server hardware details, of course, and the deployment of systeminfo.exe order Windows Server 2008 specific. If we want to know all the servers installed msi applications norms, be the first to open the command prompt and then type the command into its command mode wmic, and then the implementation of product orders will show the results you want. If you want to uninstall a msi to install the application can call the uninstall method of product, order form for the WMIC product where name = "" call uninstall. Of course we all know the tasklist, net share, net server, such as information that we obtain the server's command, in fact, we can use PowerShell commands to the relevant server to obtain more detailed information. Almost all of the PowerShell to "get" command for the prefix servers with access to information-related, such as "get-date" the date of the current system available, "Get-EventLog" server logs to obtain information, "Get-PSDrive" Acquisition System Zoning information and so on. (Figure 10)
Summary: the quality of server management is important, but also as important as efficiency, and they are not contradictory but mutually reinforcing. More as a server administrator to manage the adoption of an order will no doubt greatly enhance the efficiency of management for Windows Server 2008 server platforms such as true. I only use the above command-line server management experience, more skills we all need to find out in practice and improve, I hope this article helps all of you.
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